Appendix A: About Focus Groups



The Pew Research Center organized a series of focus groups to better understand how people think about their own cellphones and the impact these devices have on their society. Five focus groups were organized in each of the following four countries: Kenya, Mexico, Philippines and Tunisia.

Each focus group consisted of 10 adults gathered for an hour and a half for a discussion led by a professional local facilitator using a guide developed by the Pew Research Center.

In each country, the groups were structured according to the following criteria:

  • Group 1, “base phone” – all participants owned or shared a base phone that could not connect to the Internet and were 36 years of age or older;
  • Group 2, “young people, smartphone” – all participants owned or shared a smartphone and were under 30;
  • Group 3, “older, smartphone” – all participants owned or shared a smartphone and were at least 30 years old;
  • Group 4, “female phone users”: all participants were women who owned or shared a phone (including a minimum of five participants who owned or shared a smartphone) and at least two participants were married and two were not. brides;
  • Group 5, “migrant phone users” – all participants owned or shared a phone (including a minimum of five participants who owned or shared a smartphone), and all lived in a different place than where they had grown up or had a child. family member who lived elsewhere.

All of the focus groups also required participants to have at least some interest in politics, and apart from Group 4, which was made up entirely of women, they were gender balanced. Besides group 1, participants were also required to use their phones at least once a week. Where possible, participants were recruited to ensure diversity in education levels, employment status, rural and urban location, and the length of time they owned their phones.

Focus groups were held at the following locations and on the following dates:

  • Mexico City, Mexico: March 13-15, 2018
  • Manila, Philippines: March 21-23, 2018
  • Nairobi, Kenya: March 26-28, 2018
  • Tunis, Tunisia: March 28-30, 2018

D3 Systems Inc. worked with local field partners in each of the four countries to recruit participants using a filter designed by the Pew Research Center. All participants received financial compensation for their time.

These groups were primarily used to help shape the survey questions asked in each of the 11 countries. But, throughout the report, we have also included quotes that illustrate some of the main themes that were discussed during the groups. Quotes are chosen to provide context to the survey results and are not necessarily representative of majority opinion in any particular group or country. Quotes may have been edited for grammar, spelling and clarity reasons.


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